refers to the distribution and frequency of earthquakes that occur throughout the world. Earthquakes are caused by the movement of tectonic plates
 in the Earth's lithosphere, which results in the release of energy stored in the rocks. This energy can cause ground shaking and vibrations, which can have significant impacts on the built environment, human lives, and the natural environment.
Seismic activity occurs in specific regions of the world, known as seismic zones, where tectonic plates
 come into contact with one another. The most active seismic zones are located along the boundary between tectonic plates
, such as the boundary between the Pacific Plate
 and the North American Plate
 in California. Other areas of significant seismicity
 include the boundary between the African Plate
 and the Eurasian Plate
 in the Mediterranean region and the boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate
 and the Eurasian Plate
 in the Himalayas.
The frequency and intensity of earthquakes in a given region are influenced by various factors, including the size and orientation of the tectonic plates
, the type of plate boundary
, and the rate of plate movement
. Earthquakes can range in magnitude from small, barely noticeable events to catastrophic events that can cause widespread damage and loss of life. The magnitude of an earthquake is typically measured on the Richter scale, which ranges from 1 to 9, with higher values indicating more intense earthquakes.
Earthquakes can have a range of impacts, including ground shaking, which can cause damage to buildings and infrastructure, as well as trigger landslides, avalanches, and other geological hazards. Earthquakes can also generate tsunamis, which are large ocean waves that can cause significant damage to coastal communities. Volcanic eruptions can also result from earthquakes, as the release of energy can cause molten rock, ash, and gas to be expelled from the volcano.
To better understand and predict earthquakes, scientists study seismicity
 using various methods, including monitoring systems, satellite imagery, and geophysical studies. Seismic monitoring networks are used to record ground vibrations and provide real-time information about earthquakes. This information is used to improve our understanding of the underlying causes of earthquakes, as well as to develop early warning systems that can alert communities to the onset of an earthquake.
In conclusion, global seismicity
 is a reminder of the dynamic nature of the Earth's surface and the potential for earthquakes to cause significant impacts on human lives and the environment. Through ongoing research and monitoring efforts, we can gain a deeper understanding of earthquakes and improve our ability to prepare for and respond to their impacts.
- Markus Båth, Seweryn J. Duda, Some aspects of global seismicity, Tectonophysics, Volume 54, Issues 1–2, 1979, Pages T1-T8, ISSN 0040-1951, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(79)90105-7.
- N. Coltice, L. Husson, C. Faccenna, M. Arnould, What drives tectonic plates? Sci. Adv. 5, eaax4295 (2019), https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax4295
- Derrick Hasterok, Jacqueline A. Halpin, Alan S. Collins, Martin Hand, Corné Kreemer, Matthew G. Gard, Stijn Glorie, New Maps of Global Geological Provinces and Tectonic Plates, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 231, 2022, 104069, ISSN 0012-8252, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2022.104069.